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What the experts say about "The Dog Whisperer" (Cesar Millan)
  • tatonkatatonka
    Posts: 1210
    @Gemma I'm not sure that it's fair in any context to blame that idiot's actions on Cesar. Plenty of information can be misused and in your example the girl isn't actually following anything that Cesar is professing - just completely misusing it.

    I think life is a bit more complex than:
    1. Cesar is completely right
    2. Cesar is completely wrong
    Monkey!
  • SayaSaya
    Posts: 6678
    Sad this girl did this. :\

    I see it's the girl's fault she shouldn't follow everything people say and take at look and analyze the dog's actions.

    The wolf park has a nice book with lots pictures of various dog's body language and so on I need buy it eventually..

    She got bite marks so clearly the shiba was so scared it tried to defend itself.

    There is so many like this it's nuts.
    Photobucket
    Nicole, 5year old Bella(Boxer), and 4year old Saya(Shiba inu)
  • So many of Cesar's "failures" seem to disappear to the "Rehab Center". I wonder what happens to them all? :(

    Here's what Shadow (the Mal/Husky Cesar choked) is like now:
    http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/animal-emotions/201204/did-cesar-millan-have-hang-the-husky/comments?page=4

    ETA: I watched the follow up video to the food guarding lab. What interested me was not how he was working with the lab (I had the sound turned off), but the reactions of Junior. What an unhappy animal. I lost track of the appeasement gestures he was making - he was licking his lips almost obsessively, slunk down, curling away, etc... At one point, he even alpha rolls himself. I think that video says so much about so-called dominance training.
    Post edited by orangedoggie at 2012-10-29 04:52:32
  • It is that simple, Cesar is completely wrong...see @orangedoggie's link above...sorry.

    and of course read this thread from beginning....
    Post edited by Koji's mom at 2012-10-29 22:52:06
  • SayaSaya
    Posts: 6678
    I've seen the full episode of the resource guarding dog it was interesting she didn't display the aggressive resource guarding till the dog's owner was in the yard..

    From sounds of things Marley didn't come from a good breeder and showed resource guarding early as a young dog and I think the owner might have used more physical means to stop the dog?

    This is why when a dog shows resource guarding you need work with the dog carefully the dog is afraid your going to take his/her food it's a trust issue I think plus it's a natural thing for dogs to do.

    As owners we need work with them as puppies to know food comes from us and also teach them things like drop it, leave it, and to trade a high value item for something..

    Bella resourced guarded her food used to be kibble, but she got better with some work and then her raw treats she'd growl at me and get tense.

    I never crouched or took the item away. When I gave the chicken quarter to Bella I just stood by eventually she did better so I worked up to telling her to drop it and she got a tiny piece of liver or chicken heart and then she went back to eating her meal.

    I worked slowly up to her dropping the item then I gave leave it command then she got her treat and went back to eating her food.

    Then I got to where I am now where I have her drop it then leave it she gets her treat then I pick it up for a bit to look at then I give it back to her.

    I haven't had a time where I had get something from her though she does somehow find cat poop in the yard darn neighbor's and their loose cat. >.<

    She's getting better with leave it on that though then I have fun job getting a bag to clean it up.. lol

    Coarse there is her issue of rolling in coyote poo or horse poo Bella your one nutty boxer..

    I think Bella's resource guarding came about because when she was a puppy mom fed her and Dink together which Dink being a pig of a catahoula mix she wanted to eat all of Bella's food so she pushed her out of the way and ate it.

    I got mom to stop feeding Dink and Bella together so she could eat in peace..

    I'm not against feeding dogs in same room, but Dink was not such a well behaved dog she wanted all the dogs food.. I prefer dogs to eat peacefully.

    Coarse Saya on raw so she eats separate at all times.

    Yeah the follow up video was sad and that one fluffy or curly coat tan dog didn't want to join in to play.. :\

    On one forum someone posted pit bulls are very into displaying submissive stuff like Blue did, but still I dunno if it's true as I never owned a pit bull before.

    Do own a boxer and she is sensitive to yelling even if it's yelling at a sports game she isn't happy with it.. Luckily we don't watch sports much.

    This book covers on resource guarding I hope to get it someday.
    http://www.amazon.com/Mine-Practical-Guide-Resource-Guarding/dp/0970562942/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&qid=1328913609&sr=8-3

    I think it was for best their dog be re home elsewhere because it wasn't good for the baby plus the owners were afraid..

    I wish I could find the full episode to it because it shows much more then the biting part..

    I think the owners got the dog from someone in a parking lot or maybe that was from some other show I'm not sure..
    Photobucket
    Nicole, 5year old Bella(Boxer), and 4year old Saya(Shiba inu)
  • jelliesjellies
    Posts: 142
    I also think things are more complex than just Cesar is all wrong or all right.

    For instance recently the BBC had a special on dogs where a brit actor drove and travelled around the world looking at the origins of dogs, how they were bred to companion status, and so on.

    A few things struck me, one from a geneticist that pointed out you can breed a wildly different looking dog with very few generations of selectivity. Like 7. Not 100s or 1000s. Dogs are VERY close genetically to wolves far closer than their remarkable change in looks (which are easily tweaked) might otherwise indicate. The position of the program was that just because a dog looks miles away from a wolf doesn't mean they don't come pre-programmed still with a lot of the same things at a base level.

    Second thing was he visited some feral guy who adopted a motherless wolf litter and brought them up lived "as a wolf" with them for 18 months. His role in the pack he defines as the referee/moderator in fights. He gets right into a squabble and calms things down. There was an alpha wolf, and a beta wolf, then the rest. The alpha is the leader and can be quite brutal to challenges to his authority. Alpha decides largely what the pack is going to do. He said his wolves probably don't see him as a human at all, but another (slightly odd) wolf.

    Anyway he points out almost as an aside that when people pick a pup from a litter they usually pick the boldest one, the one least afraid. He says what they are doing is unconsciously picking the Alpha. I can see Cesar straining at the leash to explain what this might mean down the line.

    So the program, at least this one episode of it, was interesting. I'm not sure it is so easy to either dismiss the hierarchical nature of wolf groups or to dismiss the ideas of how wolves behave with each other teaches us nothing about how dogs behave towards each other, or their family.

    Whether any of this says anything about Cesar I've no opinion on. I'm happy with reward based training and happy I don't have to watch the dog whisperer because I can't get anything else to work.
  • CaliaCalia
    Posts: 3664
    "Second thing was he visited some feral guy who adopted a motherless wolf litter and brought them up lived "as a wolf" with them for 18 months. His role in the pack he defines as the referee/moderator in fights. He gets right into a squabble and calms things down. There was an alpha wolf, and a beta wolf, then the rest. The alpha is the leader and can be quite brutal to challenges to his authority. Alpha decides largely what the pack is going to do. He said his wolves probably don't see him as a human at all, but another (slightly odd) wolf."

    The thing with this group is that this is not an accurate depiction of an actual wolf pack. Real wolf packs are family units consisting of a father, mother, and their pups. Some pups don't leave the pack, comfortable living with their parents, while others will leave and form their own packs with a mate. This guy's pack is parent-less and most likely missing some major communication that can only be taught by adults. Think of taking a group of kids and leaving them in a room without adults, what this guy is experiencing is more like that.
    image
  • lindsaytlindsayt
    Posts: 4786
    Good point Calia
    "Common sense isn't so common"
    photo c5d87957-61b6-48af-a440-4187cbfc861b_zps88ccdf88.jpg
  • jelliesjellies
    Posts: 142
    fair enough!
    I found the name of the documentary it is this one
    http://www.smithsonianchannel.com/site/sn/show.do?episode=136066

    youtube:
    Post edited by jellies at 2012-10-31 04:18:13
  • CaliaCalia
    Posts: 3664
    LoL Shaun Ellis, check out "Living with the Wolfman". It's a tv series on animal planet that basically was documenting acclimating Shaun's girlfriend into the pack and some of the crazy things they had to do to accomplish that (like fake vomit food for pups). http://animal.discovery.com/tv/wolfman/
    image
  • TO be clear I was responding to the girl "training her grandparents dog by choking and dominating" and what I thought was someone saying it's "more complex" than CM is all bad.

    Dog behaviour is very complex, but for vast majority of low information dog owners/public, watching CM gives them license to get physical with their dogs and "dominate" them...

    Most viewers are not animal behaviourists able to parse out the complexities...So I feel comfortable generalizing that he's bad for dogs...

  • jelliesjellies
    Posts: 142
    Hm, their wolf pups look familiar :)



  • SayaSaya
    Posts: 6678
    I know this been posted a lot, but don't think this video has been it is in slow motion and has a bit of info on what the dog is doing.

    I still can't believe he didn't see that bite coming. I'm sure Saya would do same thing if I pushed her so hard.


    I worked with Saya hand fed her and used some meals for training same for Bella..

    Bella used growl at me over her raw meals now she drops it on command and leaves it and lets me examine the item before giving it back.

    I just don't like Cesar because too many try to do his techniques on other dogs at dog park without asking! :(

    Rolling over a strange dog is asking for trouble.

    Saya gives clear warnings when dogs was being too rude she curled her lip and growled sadly most dogs don't seem know dog language and would try to push her more so I had to stop the other dog myself.

    I no longer go to dog park I learned it's too full of idiots who think their dog is perfect and can do no harm. Coarse if my dog defended herself because their dog ran into her or pawed at her to play without greeting the owners flipped out.. so many dogs were so hyped up at the dog park it's like that is their siole source of exercise..

    After talking to some I found out it is they're sole exercise because their dog pulls too hard to go on walks each day. Sad.
    Photobucket
    Nicole, 5year old Bella(Boxer), and 4year old Saya(Shiba inu)
    Post edited by Saya at 2012-11-08 12:55:39
  • RikkaRikka
    Posts: 1501
    I'm a frequent user of Tumblr (saw what @Gemma posted) and I've come across some of the unusual posts whenever I search the tag "Shiba Inu." I'm also on Reddit a lot, especially under the /r/Shiba, and there is so much bad advice, it drives me insane.

    The way it works on Reddit is that people post threads, and if you agree with a post within that thread, it gets "upvoted." The more upvotes, the more it raises onto the top of the thread. When you're looking at a thread, then the comments, the top-rated comment is, obviously, at the very top. There was a thread on there the other day of someone asking "how to stop their Shiba puppy from nipping." (I swear, if I even had a penny for every time I've heard or seen this asked, I'd make hundreds of dollars a years [and not even for Shibas, just puppies in general])

    The top comment? "Oh, just roll your puppy on its' back and wait until it calms down. Keep rolling them on their back every time they nip. It displays dominance." I replied saying it was abysmal advice and linked them to something that debunks that bullshit. The original poster (OP) commented to his top-rated comment with, "Thanks! I'll try that!"

    Their reply to what I said to them? "Well, I'm saying what worked for me."

    *twitches*
    image
    Lauren, living with a 4 y/o Shiba named after a scientist. ☆
    Post edited by Rikka at 2012-12-26 17:43:26
  • @Rikka Ugh, did not know there was a Shiba category. I'm not on Reddit much, but I'm logging in just to downvote that.
    image
    Bowdu 寶肚 (Shiba) and Bowpi 寶媲 (Basenji) with M.C.
  • GatsuGatsu
    Posts: 651
    Well Cesar Millan is coming to my city, I'm tempted to go see him.
  • MayamaMayama
    Posts: 270
    The Dog Whisperer has started to show on national TV in Taiwan for about a year. Before it started, a few dog trainers have protested against it, but it still made its way on air. I went back to Taiwan a few weeks ago, and I couldn't believe the number of times I heard people talking about the show, especially after I told them I have a dog. It's really shocking to hear my friends raving about how good Cesar Millan is and how much wonderful things he did for the dogs. Even my boyfriend's dad was watching it and asking us if we are being a good "pack leader".

    It's really sad because there aren't other programs like "It's Me or the Dog" that can help counter the damage, and in Taiwan, something foreign always have more authority. So Cesar Millan is now the only known "expert" and his training is now the only professional "method". Sigh, I almost got into a fight with a friend arguing over this...
    Shiba Inu Maya's blog and FB page
  • SayaSaya
    Posts: 6678
    Barking mad was one show I loved to watch.. They used more positive training on the animals.. The show wasn't just on dogs though sometimes had horses, rabbits, parrot or cats too along with dogs.

    One episode a rabbit would chase after people and intimidate the owners so they worked out way to work with him to not be that way.

    Barking mad doesn't show anymore, but I liked it along with it's me or the dog.
    Photobucket
    Nicole, 5year old Bella(Boxer), and 4year old Saya(Shiba inu)
  • NekopanNekopan
    Posts: 403
    I've never visited r/Shiba, but I do frequent r/dogtraining where they (usually) give great advice. They stress positive training, and discount the dominance theory. So, I guess your mileage may vary when it comes to Reddit. I'm looking forward to the day when positive training is accepted over dominant methods by the average person. I think we're getting there.
  • lucylulucylu
    Posts: 500
    There was just a sesame shiba on his show. Of corse I turned it on right at the end.
  • RikkaRikka
    Posts: 1501
    I love r/dogtraining and r/dogs, it's just r/Shiba that offers different, weird advice. I'm not sure why.

    Here are some examples of "wtf?" on a thread I've found:

    http://www.reddit.com/r/shiba/comments/152b3g/my_shiba_loves_to_bite_any_tips/
    image
    Lauren, living with a 4 y/o Shiba named after a scientist. ☆
    Post edited by Rikka at 2012-12-28 14:08:33
  • BootzBootz
    Posts: 3495
    @Mayama, I know how you feel! Friends/family thought I went crazy when I told them I started Bootz/Jackie on a raw diet.

    I was at the dog park yesterday and somebody was "Cesar Millan"-ing their dog. It was a little girl too! No more than 12 years of age. Its so sad watching people be so rough with their dogs, especially at the dog park.
  • SayaSaya
    Posts: 6678
    Never seen redit before.. Some of the advice is a bit crazy.

    "my mom taught us to push down on the back of their tongue when they had our hand in their mouth. They automatically open their mouths, would wiggle their tongue and shake their head to try and get our hand out. The slight discomfort lasts less than 3 seconds and they learn very quickly that hands don't belong in mouths"

    "As a puppy i would pluck him on the snout (not too hard, just hard enough to get his attention) and say No, Biting!"
    Photobucket
    Nicole, 5year old Bella(Boxer), and 4year old Saya(Shiba inu)
    Post edited by Saya at 2012-12-28 14:39:40
  • RikkaRikka
    Posts: 1501
    Here's another comment in a new thread that made me cringe:

    http://www.reddit.com/r/shiba/comments/1604km/are_your_shibas_meanspirited/c7rihuv
    image
    Lauren, living with a 4 y/o Shiba named after a scientist. ☆
  • sandrat888sandrat888
    Posts: 576
    Another good article discussing why Cesar Milan's methods are outdated and dangerous.
    http://ladycyon.tumblr.com/post/2155151198/the-deception-of-the-dog-whisperer
  • That picture says it all doesn't it? I wonder if that's the yellow lab that got him real good.
  • teddyjamesteddyjames
    Posts: 124
    I read two of his books. Not to learn aversive techniques, but I think I'm gonna go gouge my eyes out anyway. Lots of hate for this guy haha
  • DebDeb
    Posts: 286
    I bought one of CM's books a couple years ago (used from Amazon) just to read it first hand and see what the scoop with this guy is and what he's pushing. I read it. I found it to be useless garbage. I pitched it in the trash.
  • sunyatasunyata
    Posts: 8588
    @teddyjames - I am so glad that you read through this thread and found it helpful. :)
    Bella 2Mountains 2Nola 2
    Casey, with Bella and Nola, hanging out in the mountains of Virginia.
    I Wander, I Ride
  • teddyjamesteddyjames
    Posts: 124
    @sunyata I did! I never agreed with any of the alpha roll or leash jerks etc. I would NEVER try to physically harm or overpower an animal (unless its pretty much life or death). But thanks for the eye opener everyone. It sounding like hes wrong prettyyyyy much every time words come out of his mouth
  • teddyjamesteddyjames
    Posts: 124
    May be off topic a bit at this point but just purchased Before And After Getting your Puppy by Ian Dunbar on google books. We'll see what I learn :)
  • Koji's momKoji's mom
    Posts: 632
    @Teddyjames - That is an excellent book! I used it along with classes as guide to raise Koji and it took patience, but he has zero guarding, no biting and loves babies :)

    A note: Dr. Dunbars advice is excellent - but his tone at times is a bit alarming - like if you don't do EXACTLY as he says it's immediate doooooom...and I admit it made me quite anxious sometimes..I know he does that because so many people ruin their dogs and the dogs end up in shelters and dead so it it important...Just an observation...

    I'd follow the book but remember the fun parts too!
  • SayaSaya
    Posts: 6678
    That's a pretty good book I've read. Sadly I never read it myself..

    I just have two shiba books and few books on dog stuff from Patricia mcconnell.

    I believe Ian Dunbar has been to the wolf park which is close to me for a seminar or something.. I know I seen him with the wolves. I sadly couldn't go. :\

    Yeah I'm not into whole dominance thing I see dog ownership as a partnership type of thing.
    Photobucket
    Nicole, 5year old Bella(Boxer), and 4year old Saya(Shiba inu)
  • teddyjamesteddyjames
    Posts: 124
    @Koji's mom So far it is great! I'm halfway done with it already, and scared to death since page one haha. I"m gonna search the forum and create a discussion in training (hopefully that would be the right place) to address my major concerns! Don't want to pull this thread further off topic.
  • curlytailscurlytails
    Posts: 2779
    Okay, this might not be the best place for this, but I'm annoyed enough to want to vent.

    There was recently a plea for rehoming help on a local Shiba list. People were really great about offering suggestions for how to deal with the dog and new baby, including calling in a behaviorist. The response I read today was, "Thank you so much for your suggestion. We have already tried and hired a dog whisperer, she studied in England with Ceasar Milan [sic]. She had some great suggestions that we have been using with XXX. Unfortunately, they are not working. He is a very jealous pup and I am so concerned for my daughter."

    I am not blaming the mother if she really doesn't know any better. But seriously, where the hell does one go in England to "study" with a self-styled expert who is NOT in a position to do justice to any teaching?! I think what is most disturbing to me is that the weight of Millan's celebrity alone is enough to confer value to some unknown "dog whisperer" hack. THIS is what "normal" people think is okay. And some days more than others, the fact that this IS considered okay is NOT okay with me...
    image
    Bowdu 寶肚 (Shiba) and Bowpi 寶媲 (Basenji) with M.C.
  • redcattooredcattoo
    Posts: 1960
    @curlytails, this is a good thread to vent in ... so sorry to hear your vent though as that dog is being set up for failure and rescue/shelters in the near future. :(
  • RikkaRikka
    Posts: 1501
    Lame. I can definitely relate.

    That's one of the reasons why I unsubscribed from /r/Shiba on Reddit because a lot of them would advocate using Cesar Millan's practices, or dominance theory, when people would reach out and ask for help regarding their puppy or adult. Not only was I tired of arguing with people who refused to believe anything differently, I was getting irate whenever I came across it. Shit like that was ALWAYS being upvoted to the top of the threads, too.
    image
    Lauren, living with a 4 y/o Shiba named after a scientist. ☆
  • MayamaMayama
    Posts: 270
    @curlytails: I felt the exact same way when I saw the email. I was out of words and didn't know how to respond. It was nice of you to send out a follow-up with information. Even if that owner won't change her mind (since the dog is a threat to her baby's safety), at least other list members will have a chance to be educated.
    Shiba Inu Maya's blog and FB page
    Post edited by Mayama at 2013-04-20 21:10:46
  • SayaSaya
    Posts: 6678
    This isn't about Cesar Millan, but I do think people on this forum especially new dog owners who never owned a dog before need to know about this guy and avoid anything he writes or videos of his insane training..

    Brad Patterson. I'm sure most here who are well informed in bad training know about him, but some might not so I posted this to inform how crazy this guy is.

    I'm sure even cesar fans would find Brad insane with his techniques..

    I re-watched this few time and found the white dog is deaf.. :(
    At 1:13 in video the guy tells him that.


    This video shocked me when I first watched it. I don't care if your client pissed you off you don't do that to a dog.


    This really shows lies he says..


    He used to have series on animal planet. I watched few episodes and was shocked.

    Here's an example of an episode of the US version luckily this no longer airs anymore. He even asks why the kid is crying. Not in the video, but when I saw it long time ago he said that at one point..

    I mean yelling at the aggressive dog "That is not the right way to say hello!" WTF? Dog's don't understand that much of human speech.

    Another thing if the dog is aggressive you don't introduce the dogs that way.



    I'm not really into dominant type training, but even if you are there is things that should be looked into.

    This type training Brad does is not training he won't allow video taping his work anymore due to clients posting what he does on youtube.

    I'm sure he has his TV show heavily edited to not show the hardcore training he does. Luckily the USA airing is no longer, but still airs in Canada I think.

    I can understand how people like Cesar Millan, but this guy I can't believe people will go to him for any type of training. Street safety more like smack dog every time a biker goes by.. :(

    Photobucket
    Nicole, 5year old Bella(Boxer), and 4year old Saya(Shiba inu)
    Post edited by Saya at 2013-05-09 19:38:08
  • orangedoggieorangedoggie
    Posts: 395
    I would kick that guy in the nuts if he did that to my dog. And all those grinning idiots in the background just going along with it need a slap to the face.
  • lindsaytlindsayt
    Posts: 4786
    This guy is a dick
    "Common sense isn't so common"
    photo c5d87957-61b6-48af-a440-4187cbfc861b_zps88ccdf88.jpg
  • Kobe1468Kobe1468
    Posts: 1590
    Wow!!! I don't normally advocate violence, but in this case, I agree with orangedoggie!

    I've actually never seen this prick before. I don't watch much TV, probably because of crap like this flooding the screen!

    Thanks for posting...and I'll pass this guys name and BS methods on to my dog owner friends!!
    "Until one has loved an animal, a part of one's soul remains unawakened."
  • SayaSaya
    Posts: 6678
    Luckily his show on animal planet didn't last too long I forgot how long it lasted as I stopped watching it.

    Photobucket
    Nicole, 5year old Bella(Boxer), and 4year old Saya(Shiba inu)
  • curlytailscurlytails
    Posts: 2779
    I saw this link shared elsewhere, and wanted to add it to this thread. Not sure if it has been added to other relevant threads.

    "The Dog Whisperer: Frequently Asked Questions"
    by Lisa Mullinax, CPDT
    http://www.4pawsu.com/cesarfans.htm

    Basically, she responds to common rebuttals in defense of Cesar, such as:
    • "I have never seen him hurt a dog."
    • "Have you even watched the show?"
    • "Your article was biased."
    • "You shouldn't criticize him just because you don't agree with his methods."
    • "You're jealous of his success."
    • "The dogs on his show are different than what you [or Victoria Stilwell, etc.] work with -- they have serious issues."
    • "You think there is only one way to train a dog."
    • "Positive trainers would rather euthanize aggressive dogs."
    • "People shouldn't treat dogs like humans."
    • "But he doesn't train dogs, he rehabilitates them."
    • "It's obvious from watching the show that it works."
    • "It worked on my dog(s)."
    • "So what if he doesn't have a formal education? He actually works with dogs and doesn't just study them in a lab."
    • "Do you think people should treat their dogs like children?"
    • "Positive methods don't work on 'red zone' dogs.
    • "That's not a 'red zone' dog."
    • "I tried giving my dog a treat around other dogs and it didn't work."


    The article itself is copyrighted, so you should click on the link to see how she responds. I was impressed with the list she compiled of typical disagreements from Cesar fans. Any Cesar debate that goes on for long enough is bound to hit most, if not ALL of those points...
    image
    Bowdu 寶肚 (Shiba) and Bowpi 寶媲 (Basenji) with M.C.
  • SayaSaya
    Posts: 6678
    Update on Shadow the husky he is no longer with the owners who had adopted him.


    https://www.facebook.com/pat.miller.5015/posts/10201941071077163
    Photobucket
    Nicole, 5year old Bella(Boxer), and 4year old Saya(Shiba inu)
  • Kobe1468Kobe1468
    Posts: 1590
    I stumbled upon this site earlier. Don't know if it's already been linked, but it includes a lot of links to different behaviorists and organizations who share their opinions on Cesar.

    http://beyondcesarmillan.weebly.com/dogs-in-danger.html


    "Until one has loved an animal, a part of one's soul remains unawakened."
  • I've posted this before but it seems like it needs reposting frequently. There has actually been a scientific study conducted that shows that the sort of aversive techniques/behavior modification he promotes are actively detrimental. I've never seen a convincing argument that what he does in "educating" owners is a net good for the dog owning community.

    http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/applan/article/S0168-1591(08)00371-7/abstract

    Note - anyone with a university affiliation (including usually alumni) should be able to access the full article (not just the abstract) via ProQuest.

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